a European body of Civil Security (C.E.S.C.)
The contribution of France
By Roger TEBIB.
The last world conflict has allowed assuming the size and aspect of the apocalypse which would be inevitably taken the probable wars, while the peripheral conflicts develop in all continents and while the harm of the technological company multiply new dangers.
But we also understand that the European identity freely accepted and respecting the sovereignty of the country members, become our big advantage to these dangers.
Thus a strong effort of general protection is necessary and it is possible to show that the French services of safety of the population are able to give it a push.
I. The Civil Security in different European States.
The next day after the Second World War, all States have given their efforts to the reconstruction of the damages, the restoration of the destroyed cities, the reconstruction of injured regions, and also on measures on protection from the nuclear weapon. They began researches on detection of the radioactivity, the signaling of alarm, the distribution of the big fires. It was necessary to plan a doctrine, to create an organization, to develop the necessary legislative texts.
The most part of civil security services were created or reorganized after the 50's: in Denmark and in Norway in 1953, in Switzerland in 1963, in federal Germany in 1965.
It is ascertained, in all countries, a large convergence of views concerning the protection of the population in peacetime, in case of crisis or during a war.
A. Various aspects of civil protection.
It is very obvious, that the taken measures and the used methods are function of places and times:
These three aspects are met in the definition given by the authorities of the Great Britain: "The protection of civilians has for purpose to allow to the people to keep its desire to win, to the industry to continue its essential manufactures, to the public service to continue to function, to the government to operate. "
B. The auto-protection in Germany.
The example of our neighbors is, in this respect, the most interesting. The commune is considered as a base cell of civil protection with, for infrastructures, fire brigade, medical installations, forces of order and the concerned services.
1. The Governmental grants.
In 1951, the government of federal ex-Germany has received from the ally authorities the sanction to reorganize the services of protection of civilians. October 9, 1957, the Bundestag put on voting a fundamental law known as "first law on the measures, intended to assure the protection of civilians". Then another text from December 5, 1958 has established a federal Office of protection of civilians (Bundessteler für Zivilen Bevölkerungschutz). It supervises closely the device of private law named Bundesverbang für den Sebstsvchutz (B.V.S.), that is federal Union for the auto-protection created by the law of September, 9, 1965 about "the protection in case of catastrophe". At last, it is necessary to mark that the base law of October 9, 1957 recognizes formally, that "the commune is the center of civil protection". The federal government pays important grants to the federal Union for auto-protection, but Länder and municipalities do not pay anything.
2. The advantages of this system are various:
3. The assured formation is polyvalent and very much pushed.
Undoubtedly, the auto-protection is not all the German civil protection. It is not less important that it offers an original, effective and a little bit expensive example of an organization, which has the big merit to induce all the citizens to take an active part to the protection o f the common patrimony.
But, as quite organized as it is, this protective structure may not make on its own the ideal organization of defense in case of serious crisis or wars. Therefore, many countries consider that its implement should be maintained by the intervention of mobile forces powerfully equipped and mechanized.
It is possible to quote, between others, the States, which have reached very satisfactory decisions.
The Mobile columns in Denmark.
The originality of the Danish system comes from the existence, beside the local organizations of defense, of the mechanized columns able to interfere quickly to some hundreds kilometers from their place of introduction.
1. The Organization.
The Danish mobile columns are thus, from all points of view, one of the most original achievements of the safety of the population which give to the population the confidence of the existence of a system of a national solidarity (see Olivier d'Ormesson, For an European protection of civilians, in: Acts of the Colloquium of High French Committee of civil protection, Roubaix, 1988).
Mobile columns in Netherlands
In this State, in August 1955 was created a royal Body of mobile columns which was joined to the overland forces February, 1-st 1963. It unites reservists, which have no special affectation of mobilization established in Utrecht and of an Educational center in the camp of Craillo, near Amersfort. It also exists a section responsible for the mobilization. But these introductions risk obviously changing for technical or economic reasons.
These reservists make two training "conversion" of four weeks everyone:
The first is devoted to the base instruction;
The second takes place two years later and is based on the dynamics of the group (school of section, then of companies).
As a result of this training, people are really included in services of protection of civilians.
This royal body of mobile columns counts, in total, about 25 000 people, among which 1 500 officers and 3 000 reserve corporals.
It includes 23 mobile columns, which are intended to struggle against fire, for rescue - cleaning of territory and for public health service.
Mobile columns in Italy.
They are 12 and their personnel are made of firemen. The question is either of experts, or about young recruits who have decided to carry out a service of 14 months in the national Body of firemen.
They follow at the beginning a formation of 4 months at the central schools of struggle against the fire in Rome.
Their status is the status of civil functionaries serving the State, but there is a civil - military cooperation.
These columns are setting up in case of serious accident in a time of approximately 12 hours.
Mobile columns in France.
In our country also, exist elements of specialized help, with well-surrounded, very much motivated staff, for difficult missions. Reforms and indisputable improvements are made, for decades, but we collide always with problems of credits and relations between services.
We may quote, mutatis mutandis, the following units:
1. The subdivision of interventions accident air-mobile (D.I.C.A) of the Unit of instruction of safety of the population N ° 7 (U.I.S.C. 7).
It was born from the experience of various interventions of this unit (El-Asnam, Italy, Mexico for the an earthquake; Tahiti and Mayotte for cyclones; Beirut for conflicts). Deeply repeatedly improved, it is a remarkable model. For example:
The advanced subdivision of operative coordination (D.A.C.O.) with three cells (command and transfer, logistic, medical).
The technical unit (D.T) with three identical groups which an additional rescuer with dogs group.
The D.I.C.A. includes in total 50 persons and 6 dogs. It is completely independent within 8 days and it may receive then, if it is necessary, a second group of 150 persons with a heavy technical equipment, means of shelter, foodstuffs and medicines.
Its missions are various: immediate rescue of persons, the safety of animals and goods, missions of technical interventions with punctual character, help to the population.
The U.I.S.C. 1 (Nogent-le-Rotrou) is capable to establish a unit of this type.
2. The subdivision of interventions for cataclysm (D.I.C) of the Brigade of the Parisian firemen (B.S.P.P).
Being is made of about forty experts in search and in localization of victims, it may be sent in a time of four hours. It is composed of:
3. The SOS rescue - cleaning of the battalion of seamen firemen of Marseilles (specialized operative section).
It includes about forty people distributed as follow:
It may interfere in France and abroad, subject to mobilization for four hours, air-portable and independent within four days.
4. L'Elis of the Gard or Element of the specialized intervention.
It is a realization of departmental civil firemen who renewed some structures and methods of the D.I.C.A. of U.I.S.C. 7; its staff is of approximately 35 persons distributed as follows :
Its specialty is essentially the medical aid.
5. COLMED 16 (medical Column of Charente).
It is made from a column of health care vehicles .
We could say that our country has carried out the necessary means to be involved in compatible terms with the urgency caused by numerous natural or technological accidents.
The help of collective urgency abroad.
From the end of cold war, the problematic of humanitarian has grasped the field of the world policy. To help victims, with no discrimination, has remained a sacred principle, but the interventions are not always easy. The ideas about the international help change and the good will requires to be helped: it does not serve for anything to send help in material, monetary or personal if their role or function is not established from the beginning.
The official or non-governmental organizations appear fortunately more and more numerous with positive results but also risks. ( see P. de Senarclens, The humanitarian in catastrophe, Press of Sciences po, 1999).
Concerning Europe, we may quote as examples two original organisations.
1. The Swiss Body of volunteers for help in case of accident abroad.
It depends on the federal political department (Foreign activity) and includes the medical and sanitary personnel, experts of talent, supply, transfers and transport.
It operates during direct actions of Switzerland, but is also available to the Red Cross and the United Nations Organization.
Basically, it is not stipulated to work in the federal territory (see Xavier Emmanuelli, Medicine and first aid, P.U.F., 1979).
2. The Force of humanitarian action of fast intervention (F.A.H.M.I.R)..
This French body includes mainly:
Created in 1983, it is intended to help under a kind of the help in know-how and in biological products to the States which would ask to us the help to overcome crisis, happened on their territory. For these "epidemic catastrophes", are stipulated in particular the equipment of laboratory and pharmaceutical products (inoculations against the spinal meningitis, the yellow fever, the cholera, etc.) given by the institutes Mérieux and the Pastor Production.
To mark, that since 1985, in Bordeaux was created the Bio Aquitaine force that became Institute of formation and support to initiatives of development (IFAID Aquitaine).
At the beginning of the 60's, the accidents of Agadir and Skopje have proved the lack of international means in such situations. The public health service of armies has offered to supply France with surgical formation under tents, setting up quickly and air-portable. It answers to four requirements:
- delivery everywhere the world;
- fast intervention;
- adaptation of means to the type of mission required by the accident;
- division, being able to exist two or three weeks for its own means. ( see Puzenat and Besnard, in: Medicine of accidents, Medical Tribune, 1984).
This medical element includes:
- a cell of command and support;
- two surgical commands;
- two commands with doctors, members of an intensive care unit , pediatrician, medical sister of the Red Cross, hospital attendants or medical sisters
- a laboratory
- a group of air sanitary support with two commands.
The E.M.M.I.R. has also transport planes, helicopters, vehicles and means of transfers.
Someone has told about it : "It is not only an urgent medical-surgical division. It is a "system". Selected, prepared staff but who in normal time hold posts in all France, chosen, maintained equipment and mainly a special device of alarm at all levels on which relays the rapidity of the answer on the inquiry." (J.A. Videlaine, in Medicine in situation of accident, Masson, 1987). To mark, that, since the creation of the Bio force, a part of missions of the E.M.M.I.R. was charged to the Bio, force.
The Element of fast safety of the population of medical intervention (ESCRIM) is a unit made approximately of 42 persons coming from military units of safety of the population and from SDIS of the Gard.
It was sent, three years ago, to Congo where civil war just came to an end, after having made about 15 000 victims.
The mission charged to this group was double: first, medical - to provide care for the population which suffered extremely from this conflict, and after that logistical support to start out a part of sanitary structures of hospital of Brazzaville.
It is an example among other groups established in our country.
Means of civil safety
To carry out the missions fixed by the decree from January, 13, 1965, civil authorities have supplied, gradually, the services of civil safety with administrative structures and with equipment which make out of this body the best equipped from the Europe.
Here is a test of inventory:
II. Civil - military cooperation.
The organization of mobile columns is based, in general, on very close relations between armies and civil authorities. Columns are co-ordinated especially lawfully as prevails, in the considered country, the concept of "general defense".
As a matter of fact, the armies may bring an important support to various areas when there is a catastrophe. They have structures and means that allow them to assume, by way of exception, missions, which do not normally fall to them, or to assist to other bodies responsible for civil security.
Some examples may be given in Europe:
The Great Britain.
The English civil defense gives a big place to the army in its operational system. This principle is formally expressed in military settlements. "All armed forces, in active or in reserve, placed in the Great Britain at the moment of the beginning of hostilities and which are not still involved, should be ready to help civil authorities in the struggle for live. "
A body was created for the interventions in case of crisis or accident, the Civil defense body, made everyone of 36 battalions of 800 persons. But budgetary reduction has placed it in dream approximately two decades ago.
Inside the Innere Führung, Bundeswehr brings its support to civil services in urgent positions or in case of accident as well as protection of the natural environment.
Except these punctual actions of help, the armed forces are in condition of alertness 24 hours per days.
1. the Centers of coordination SAR ( search and rescue) are established in Glücksburg and Goch.
2. the Commands SAR are 12 (Westerland, Helgoland, Kiel, Borkum, Jever, Ahlhorm, Eassberg, Nörvenich, Pferdsfeld, Ingolstadt, Bremgarten and Landsberg).
3. there is a service SAR of alarm in Nordholz.
4. the three rescue centers of Bundeswehr are in Hamburg, Koblenz and Ulm.
5. the three civil rescue centers, with helicopters of Bundeswehr are situated in the Rhine, Würselen and Nürnberg.
There are on the average twenty sorties per day for operations of urgent help (evacuation of patients, search and rescue in mountain, transport of blood and transplants, help in case of accident, etc.).
We should also add the help brought to the countries of the third world with, in particular, free-of-charge delivery of equipment, occurs of stocks of armed forces.
In this area of protection of the population, the effort of Bundeswehr aspires to coming nearer to that of the French army. A cooperation in the domain of civil defense will complete favorably the linkages that exist between the armies of two countries. Let us add that the reunion of Germany has not practically changed this modern concept of defense.
In the field of relations between the civil and the military, three examples may be given:
1. The battalion of seamen - firemen of Marseilles (BMPM).
It was created by the decree - the law from July, 29 1939 owing to the fire of Galleries where the local firemen could not interfere effectively. Its creation renews a traditional structure. Actually, the decision from August, 14, 1719 has charged the employee of the arsenal of Galleries of Marseille the protection of four pumps " à la Hollandaise ".
Strong of approximately 1 500 people, the battalion of firemen of Marseille is a unit of national Fleet but it depends for work of the mayor of city. It is placed under command of the captain of the first rank and includes:
They are, as a whole, the following:
2. The brigade of the Parisian firemen (B.S.P.P).
It is the direct successor of the battalion created by the imperial decree of September, 18, 1811, transformed into a subdivision by Napoleon III the 5 of December 1866 and made in brigade in February 1967.
It is a military unit joined since 1965 to weapon of Talent.
The brigade counts approximately 7 500 persons distributed in three groups:
B. Special organizations.
They were created inside the Brigade to answer to very specific dangers, for example:
C. Types of missions.
Besides classical interventions in the Parisian district, the Brigade takes part in missions of help to constant or tactical name, in Paris and in other places, for example:
- in Larq-Artix (east Pyrenees) to strengthen the local help near the wells of extraction of natural gas;
- in Biscarosse (Landes) for the protection of installations of the Centre of test of Landes (C.E.L) and its tactical and strategic ballistic missiles;
- in Kourou (Guyana) for the safety of operative installations of the National Centre of space studies (NATIONAL SAVINGS BANKS) and the shooting base of the rocket Ariane;
- in the Management of defense and civil security (D.D.S.C.);
- in the Commissariat of atomic energy (C.E.A.);
- in the Management of national museums.
It is based in Nogent-le-Rotrou and depends directly on the Management of defense and civil security (D.D.S.C.). It assures the instruction of the personnel of the Brigade of Parisian firemen, supervises its administration and gives the necessary staff (officers, noncommissioned officer and general officer).
It interferes in France and abroad. Hear are cases during the period 1970-1985.
- 1972, Vierzy (accident of railway),
- 1973, Calan (ship-wreck),
- 1975, Woigny (accident),
- 1976, in Italy (earthquake in Frioul),
- 1977, in Guadeloupe (eruption of a volcano La Soufrière) and in Djibouti (flooding),
- 1978, in Provence (fires of woods),
- 1980, in Algeria (earthquake in El Asnam) and in Britain (black waves),
- 1982, in Metz (explosion of a silage tower),
- 1985, in Mexico (earthquake),
3. The public health service of armies in military units Civil Security.
Beside its role in the Brigade of Parisian firemen and the Battalion of seamen - firemen of Marseilles, as well as the contribution which it brings to the urgent services of military hospitals, open to all the population, the public health Service of armies have various missions in the field of Civil Security.
A medical personnel of armies is distributed inside four units of instruction and intervention of civil security (UIISC 1 in Nogent-le-Rotrou, UIISC 4 in Rochefort sur Mer, UIISC 7 in Brignoles, UIISC 5 in Corte).
Each of them corresponds, in number, to a regiment of land forces and has doctors, pharmacists and corporals of the public health Service of armies. To mark, that in 2002, these four units will be incorporated in two.
These units are at Ministry of Internal Affairs' disposal and make a force of help used so much in France as abroad, and is accessible 24 hours per day.
Three hours after the order of setting up, personal and material is shipped onboard a plane. For this purpose the equipment, checked up periodically, is put on palettes and brought in the list by various codes. The medical personnel of permanence are always accessible by "bip" or by the cellular-phone.
C. Rescue in the sea.
The public health service of armies and Navy, take part, in particular, in activities of the Centre of sea medical consultation (CCMM) of Toulouse, operational regional centers of supervision and rescue (CROSS), SAMU of sea medical coordination (SCMM) and centers of sea operations of National Navy.
Medical commands are given to the helicopters working from bases of sea aircraft of Lanvéoc-Poulmic, of Saint-Mandrier as well as of that of La Rochelle and Cherbourg.
The term of alarm varies from fifteen minutes to two hours, in function of preliminary notices of storm or pre - alarms.
Doctors and hospital attendants are in general to winch to safety onboard of applicants ships, to examine patients and wounded persons, to carry out the necessary reanimation actions and to prepare them to the to winch to safety by helicopter in stretcher (see Éric Dal, in Present Armies, N ° 254, October 2000).
III. France and the international relations in question of Civil Security.
Our country is connected, in this area, with all its European neighbors as well as with the States of other continents. In effect, at this beginning of the 21-st century, a cooperation is absolutely necessary to clear our continent of radioactive or biological clouds, to eliminate the toxic waste products, to improve waters, to reduce over-expenditures, to clear the air which hides the sun, to struggle against epidemics and also Mafia and political organized crime, remaining vigilant in relation to horizon.
To all these dangers, we may note some types of actions.
The European commissions of civil security
1. They develop since decades. Here are some examples:
- the European Working group on fire, created in 1976 after the assembly in Luxembourg of Ministers of Internal Affairs of the Community. It compares the methods and the incendiary equipment of the European countries.
- Mission conducted by the French Association of normalization (the FRENCH ASSOCIATION of NORMS And STANDARDS), for the elaboration of norms at European or international level.
- Meeting consecrated to nuclear safety, under the aegis of the general secretary of interdepartmental Committee of nuclear safety in which take part mainly France, Germany, Belgium and Luxembourg.
- Meeting of responsible for civil security services from the European
countries, the first took place in March 1986 in Brussels.
1. They are without doubt very much numbered and many are accepted by numerous countries, in particular:
Let us add, that numerous countries send us missions of experts on studying our methods and our organizational concepts. An example among others: " the first supply in flight of the helicopter carried out by the Saudi aircraft and the company Eurocopter. This first campaign of tests passed in France from June 13 till June 30 2000. It aspired to accomplish dry connections (without transfer of fuel) between a plane - submachine gunner (Hercules KC 13O) and Cougar Mark 2. The supply in flight is a usual operative procedure for planes of hunt and transport, but it is not for helicopters. The Saudi aircraft will be equipped in the near future with 12 Cougar Mark 2 bought in France which should allow to it to conduct effectively saving missions of pilots. " (Armies of today, N ° 254, October 2000).
2. It is necessary to tell that the French Civil Security develops its high-efficiency equipment. It has decided, in particular, to get more than 30 typical helicopters BK 117 C 2 in the five years to come. Besides, the formation of techniques and the establishment of batches of spare enter the budget given to this operation.
The services of mine clearing are improved also, in particular with the purchase of new robots. "Castor, the little last of these robots, equips seven centers of mine clearing since 1996. Much more easy (35 kg), smaller and three times less expensive, than its ancestors the RMI (mobile robot of intervention) 3 and 10, which cost about one million francs, answers the characteristics determined by the group of technical studies of service of mine clearing." (Franck Canton, in: Civil special, quoted work).
These methods change regularly; so they think about a "binomial dog-robot" as dog's sense of smell detects some types of explosives as nitroglycerine vapors, whence reflections of creation of low temperatures and training of some dogs.
They could speak so, rightfully: "The civil security is one of the most beautiful jewel in the crown of external action of France. Few countries have such means with a so wide palette of competence. It is necessary to do so that it become recognized in France, abroad and by the international instances as a pole of excellence of foreign policy of France. " (Bernard Sexe, director of the Cell of urgency and watch, quai d'Orsay, August, 14 1998).
National Institute of Research of Civil Security (INESC).
This establishment was created in 1981 to replace the national School of protection of civilians, which was born in 1953. It gives a very beautiful image of the French higher education in this area and develops its influence in Europe and in other continents.
1. Formation and research :
Established in Nainville-les-Roches (Essonne), Chaptal street in Paris, it carries out following activity:
2. Relations with the European countries.
3. Relations with the countries of other continents.
3. Opening for the French industry.
INESC presents to a lot of countries French equipment of help and struggle against fire.
Some States send experts to receive data, for example: USA on the use of new technologies for remote education; Finland for the installation of system of intervention and Mexico, which works for the creation of a national school of protection of civilians.
We may just admire this international cooperation .
IV. A common body of civil security.
A fast and effective intervention in Europe, in a country devastated by civil war or natural disaster, does not depend only on the help on the area but on preliminary installation, "upstream" of systems of the general help which might be of common character.
It is necessary, from this point of view, to take into consideration some factors:
All this planning of help depends mainly on official bodies and, in this area, the French forces of civil security are in the best way equipped and might serve as structure of coordination of the European services.
The bases of an European policy of civil security
It seems useful, in this field to remind the following items:
Three forms of possible actions
In the frame of the prevention and management of crises, intervention may be carried out in various ways:
1. humanitarian intervention with its pure characteristics:
2. Intermediary between two opponents to compel them to solve their quarrels by negotiations:
3. Some help to allow to the civilians to survive and to the country to renew a normal life after crisis or act of nature:
An intervention of civil security that is done in a region, should take into consideration obviously specifications and also cultures and thinking.
Inventory (R) of means of help existing in the injured zone and of their possibilities of intervention. This assumes the knowledge, by rescuers, called from other country, of something like cartography of posts of first aid, hospitals, networks or radio-electric, etc.; taking into account the present technologies, of synthesis of this kind, made in each European state may be incorporated in a site given for consultation.
Integration (I) of foreign staff in unity of rescue and medical care, that demands obviously at least possession of two languages, which should be taken into consideration during the recruitment and during the installation in various sectors.
In various cultures (C), which go from Armenia to Scotland, from Sweden to Malta, the attitudes toward dangers would deserve a concrete studying: bashfulness, love to the nearest, recognition, behavior in suffering, illnesses and death... In addition, the rescuers should be conscious of disagreements. We must not forget, that religious and metaphysics reflections play a big role in reactions of the population.
Adaptation (A) to the local way of life, mainly, when the intervention takes some time, is also necessary: drink, food, personal relations... all is observed by the one to whom the doctor or the fireman comes to help.
This whole formation should be given to the rescuers to allow them to take into consideration the thinking and to make estimate the quality of grants.
- urgent help;
- urgent and food programmed aid;
- mobilization of resources and precautionary actions;
- help to refugees and displaced population.
- for the information (seal, radio, TV, documentation);
- for constituent relations;
- for an estimation (mobilization of the help and command of intervention, coordination, legal affairs).
It is obvious, that all these specifications should be the subject of plans, of agreements or reports to adapt gradually this European Body of civil security to missions which it will be charged with.
Solidarity without borders.
It is possible that in our ideal of continuous amelioration of human condition, we meet challenges difficult to be solved as to fans or inspired who want to outburst on our continent the four horses of the Apocalypse. If we want to be "masters and in possessor of the nature", we have to prepare all the means to struggle against cataclysms and epidemics.
The Europe has shown, that it has the necessary force to be released from vultures and to blossom, on all surface of the ground, in sense and heart of all the human families involved in the same destiny.
Among others, we may quote this philosopher of India, Humayun Kabîr which has told: "the reason of adventure and initiative of Europe, its belief in the human basis, its search of the truth, and its efforts to facilitate suffering wherever it exists, have all for basis the power which gives a supreme knowledge. " (In: Humanism and education in the East and the West, the international conversation organized by UNESCO, Paris, 1953).
The civil security fills its name in this humanitarian concept and our country, which is the best way equipped in this area, must establish a system of help open to the European and other continents population.